Phones can get good photos in some contexts, but they are not great for catching moving things since they have slow autofocus and poor tracking of moving things.
Find times where your hedgie is more docile if you can, and if you notice they are being more calm then remember to go for photos.
The more light the better. Flash can help in the right setting.
Even a cheap point and click digital camera will be easier to work with than a phone since it'll be able to autofocus faster and more accurately, and a fancier camera will give you better autofocus and more control.